Quote #3 | Stephen Hawking

“For millions of years, mankind lived just like the animals. Then something happened which unleashed the power of our imagination. We learned to talk and we learned to listen. Speech has allowed the communication of ideas, enabling human beings to work together to build the impossible. Mankind’s greatest achievements have come about by talking, and its greatest failures by not talking. It doesn’t have to be like this. Our greatest hopes could become reality in the future. With the technology at our disposal, the possibilities are unbounded. All we need to do is make sure we keep talking.”

– Stephen Hawking

Quote #2 | Neil deGrasse Tyson

“The most astounding fact is the knowledge that the atoms that comprise life on Earth the atoms that make up the human body are traceable to the crucibles that cooked light elements into heavy elements in their core under extreme temperatures and pressures. These stars, the high mass ones among them went unstable in their later years they collapsed and then exploded scattering their enriched guts across the galaxy guts made of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and all the fundamental ingredients of life itself. These ingredients become part of gas cloud that condense, collapse, form the next generation of solar systems stars with orbiting planets, and those planets now have the ingredients for life itself. So that when I look up at the night sky and I know that yes, we are part of this universe, we are in this universe, but perhaps more important than both of those facts is that the Universe is in us. When I reflect on that fact, I look up – many people feel small because they’re small and the Universe is big – but I feel big, because my atoms came from those stars. There’s a level of connectivity. That’s really what you want in life, you want to feel connected, you want to feel relevant you want to feel like you’re a participant in the goings on of activities and events around you That’s precisely what we are, just by being alive…”

– Neil deGrasse Tyson

Creating a Lavender Garden

When most people think of lavender they think of hot summer days, that heady distinctive scent and the gentle buzzing of bees; an image that has made it one of the most popular garden plants. Originally from the Mediterranean region and India, the lavender species is now cultivated all over Europe. Its uses are documented as far back as Roman times when it was used to scent their bath water. Indeed it was the Romans who first introduced the plant to Britain.
Lavender is a large family of plants, some annual, others perennial, some hardy and others tender. It is a plant well worth collecting and if you have some space in your garden, why not create a small garden devoted to the species. Here is a short guide to creating a small lavender garden which measures 15 feet square, including preparation, types of lavender you might like to grow and some companion plants.
Preparing the ground
Lavender prefers well-draining soil and a warm sunny aspect. However, it will grow in semi-shade as long as the soil conditions are right. Most lavenders are quite hardy and should survive winter temperatures, but if you live in an area with very cold winter temperatures it might be worth considering growing the plants in containers so that you can more easily protect them in severe weather.
If your soil is clay you will need to dig in plenty of organic matter followed by sharp sand in order to improve the drainage. Mark out the area you want to plant. In a square area it is a good idea to divide it up into four smaller squares with narrow paths running through so that you can easily access the plants.
Lavender plants
When deciding which species to include in your garden, there are a few things you will need to consider. How large will a particular species grow? Is it hardy? It is a good idea to grow a range of varieties in groups to achieve an overall effect of shape, size and colour. Plant in groupings of 3-5 plants for maximum impact. For larger varieties choose augustifolia or English Lavender, which is a hardy evergreen perennial. It grows to a height of 32ins with a spread of 3ft and has mauve/purple flowers on long spikes in summer. If you are keen to try and distil your own lavender oil, then choose Lavender Grosso which is a cross between augustifolia and latifolia and the choice of most commercial growers. The species is very tall growing and is good for making lavender wands and the flowers are good for making sachets. Lavender Hidcote is another good variety. This hardy evergreen perennial grows to a height of around 18in and has dark blue flowers on medium spikes in summer. Lavender Rosea has pink flowers in summer and very aromatic leaves.
Lavenders known as French Lavenders are only half hardy but are well worth growing for their attractive coloured bracts in summer. Lavender Pedunculata grows up to 24ins and has attractive purple bracts with an extra mauve centre tuft.
If you want some smaller growing varieties for the front of borders or to infill, then choose Lavender Folgate, Lavender Lodden pink or blue, and Lavender Munstead. Medium varieties include Lavender Bowles and Lavender Old English.
Maintenance
The best way to maintain a healthy lavender bush is to trim it to shape every year in spring, taking care not to cut into the old wood which will not sprout again. Once the flowers have gone over, trim back to the leaves. You can also trim the plant again in early autumn. Regular trimming in this way will keep a neat shape and encourage new growth.
If you want to gather lavender flowers for sachets or to dry as bunches, it is best to cut them just as they open. Dry the flowers by hanging them in small bunches. The leaves can be picked at any time to use fresh.
Container growing
If you choose to grow your lavender in containers make sure you choose garden planters that show the lavender off well. All lavenders look good in terracotta. Choose a well-drained compost and grit mix. Position your container in a sunny position. Although lavender will grow in partial shade, it can affect the scent of the plant. Water well and feed during the summer months. In winter allow the plant to dry out completely and then re-introduce water slowly in the spring.
Companion planting
You may wish to grow other plants alongside your lavender. If you have used a square design you could edge each square in low box hedging which will enclose the lavender plants in a straight edge of dark evergreen foliage. Other plants that grow and look well with lavender include other heat tolerant plants such as Santolina or cotton lavender, Rosemary and Oregano. Echinacea and Scabiosa are other good choices. Coleus adds a good colour contrast to the silvery grey of lavender leaves.

 

What Happens When You Quit Smoking – Benefits, Physical Changes, and Mental Changes

Most of what happens when you quit smoking is a physical reaction. Your body begins to immediately clean and repair itself. However, many other events occur, including many long-term effects that will change both the way you spend your money, as well as how you live your life.
Physical Changes
If you stopped smoking right now, within twenty minutes on the quit smoking timeline, your heart rate and blood pressure would drop back to normal levels. By the end of the day, levels of carbon monoxide would have returned to non-smoker levels. The risk of stroke, coronary heart disease, and heart attack drops to the same as a non-smoker after fifteen years.
The changes that occur after you quit smoking lead to a longer life. Carbon monoxide, which is caused by smoking cigarettes, along with nicotine and other toxins in cigarettes, create many diseases. You increase the risk of ulcers, more severe versions of colds and the flu, and many types of cancer by smoking. By cutting it out entirely, you increase the likelihood of a long, healthy life.
Mental Changes
What happens immediately after you kick the habit is the appearance withdrawal symptoms. Irritability, depression, and restlessness are the more prevalent reactions, as the body reacts to the loss of nicotine. The loss of smoking time will also result in boredom and quick-temperedness. Many quitters also report headaches and flu-like symptoms, which lessen as time goes on. Smokers are forced to dig down to the reason why they began smoking in the first place, which eases the process of quitting.
Social Changes
Most countries have smoking laws in place, which is limiting smokers by telling they exactly where they can, and can’t enjoy their cigarettes. Many restaurants don’t even allow smoking within the confines of the building because of the smell and toxicity of the smoke. Smoking causes many very undesirable traits. Smokers smell unpleasant to most people, and even to smokers themselves. Cigarette smoke makes skin, hair, clothes, houses, and mouths smell objectionable. Smelling better is one of the things that happens when you quit smoking, allowing you to move through crowded places with confidence.
Benefits
Along with these more drastic changes, your hair and clothes will smell better, your teeth will whiten, your fingernails will lose the yellowish tinge, and your sense of smell and taste will return to normal. Also what happens after you quit smoking is the discontinued loss of money.
Without the addiction to nicotine, you will have more money and free time, without being constrained by smoking breaks and buying cigarettes.
Freedom from the addiction makes quitters both happier and healthier than their smoking counterparts. What happens after you quit smoking affects the rest of your life, leading to a healthier lifestyle, which in turn leads to a longer life.

 

Facts About The Trans Siberian Railway

The Trans Siberian railway is one of the world’s classic and most well known train journeys. It is the longest point to point rail trip currently in existence, it covers a massive amount of territory from the Pacific coast at Vladivostok all the way to the edge of Europe in Moscow. Along the journey the carriages traverse taiga, steppes, and the Ural Mountains, in total a distance of almost ten thousand kilometres.
The trip is not just any ordinary rail journey, it is a world and adventure in itself. The Trans Siberian is loved by rail enthusiasts, adventurers, and those in search of romance and discovery. Memories of the trip are carried for life by those fortunate enough to have been a passenger.
Unlike the images we often see in the media, on the Trans Siberian you will discover the true essence of the world’s biggest country. Most of the passengers are Russians who are far from being aloof and cold as they were often depicted in old propaganda, today you will find warmth and hospitality no matter whether taking lunch, drinking in the bar, or simply lazing in your carriage with other passengers.
There are many reasons why people choose to travel the Trans Siberian. If you are considering booking tickets, check out these following suggestions as to why the journey has become and continues to be one of the most popular anywhere on the planet. To start with there is the name itself, it conjures up a mystique all of its own. Imagine how amazed and jealous your friends and colleagues will be when you tell them you are taking a trip on the Trans Siberian express, open jawed expressions would greet your plans.
With the option of choosing to also travel the Trans Mongolian and Trans Manchurian lines you can get a taste of China and Mongolia as well as Russia. The experience would allow you a deep understanding of these ancient cultures in a way which would not be possible if you were simply to fly in. Where else can you spend time sitting next to a Cossack, a Mongolian Buddhist lama, and at the end of your trip, smart dressed Chinese business people. The friends and contacts that will be made will last a lifetime.
Siberia in itself is a majestic land and one that is full of stunning vistas and breathtaking panoramas. This timeless and yet vast territory is one that is relatively untouched by the modern world, very few places on our planet can still be termed as natural and unchanged as Siberia.
Another reason for booking yourself a berth on this train is that you can make a stop off at Lake Baikal. This is the largest, as well as deepest, freshwater lake anywhere on the planet. It is a supremely beautiful and awe inspiring location that can be a great place to unwind.
If you want to see a huge area of the world for a relatively inexpensive price, the Trans Siberian is the way to travel. Just be warned you may end up hooked and want to come back the same way again.